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Chicago Manual of Style

Author-Date System

Developed by the University of Chicago, the Author-Date System is widely used by the social sciences and sciences disciplines. For humanities and the arts and for history papers, use the Documentary Note Style.

This guide provides examples of the most commonly cited types of sources used by Williams College students. For additional examples and explanations, see Chicago Manual of Style or the print manual at Sawyer or Schow Reference Z253 .U69 2010.

In the Author-Date System each citation consists of two parts: the text citations, which provides brief identifying information within the text, and the reference list (list of sources used) which provides full bibliographic information.

How to Format: Text Citations | Reference Lists

How to Format Text Citations

(For more a detailed overview, see CMS 15.5)

The text citations in the Author-Date Style consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work cited. No punctuation is used between the name and the date. There must be a reference list entry for each in-text citation. See also "Agreement of Text Citation and Reference List Entry" in CMS 15.20.

Single Author

(Nairn 1997)

Multiple Authors

(Geis and Bunn 1997)

Group or Corporate Author

(Global Environment Coordination 1994)

For direct quotations the page number is also included.

(Nairn 1997, 73)

For direct quotations from sources without page numbers use subheading, chapter, paragraph number, or other organizational division of the work.

(Yetman, under "Slave Narratives during Slavery and After")

Citations taken from secondary sources quoting original works
Is generally to be avoided as researchers are expected to examine the works they cite. If the original work is not available, the original and secondary source must be cited. The original author and date would be used in the running text and as the beginning of the reference list entry. The text citation would include the words “quoted in.”

text citation following mention of original source in the running text:

(quoted in Rathbun 2001)

reference list:

Sedgwick, T. 1844. Thoughts on the proposed annexation of Texas to the United States. New York: D. Fanshaw. Quoted in Rathbun, L. 2001. The debate over annexing Texas and the emergence of Manifest Destiny. Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4 (3).

How to Format Reference Lists

In a reference list entry, the year of publication is the second element, following the author’s name. Otherwise, a reference list entry is structured like an entry in a bibliography (see 14.16): the elements are separated by periods, and the first-listed author’s name, according to which the entry is alphabetized in the reference list, is usually inverted (last name first).

Books | Articles | Media | Web/Online | Government Information | Unpublished

Books

(Chicago Manual of Style, sec. 15.32-15.42)

Single author

(CMS 15.12)


Nairn, Tom. 1997. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso.

Multiple authors

(CMS 15.12)


Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge.

Edited Book

(CMS 15.35)


Sarat, Austin and Stuart Scheingold, eds. 1998. Cause Lawyering: Political Commitments and Professional Responsibilities. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Group or corporate author

(CMS 15.36)


Global Environment Coordination. 1994. Facing the Global Environment Challenge: A Progress Report on World Bank Global Environmental Operations. Washington, DC: Global Environment Coordination Division, Environment Dept., The World Bank.

Chapter or essay in book

(CMS 14.111)

Roell, Craig H. 1994. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890 - 1930, ed. Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.

Article from a reference book

(CMS 14.247)


Not usually included in the reference list. (CMS 14.247).

Articles

(Chicago Manual of Style 15.43-15.47)

Article in a journal (one author)

(CMS 15.9)


Bondonski, Ilya. 1989. "Caring Among the Forgotten." Journal of Social Activism 14 (Fall): 112-34.

Article in a journal (multiple authors)

(CMS 15.12)


Liker, Andras and Tamas Szekely. 1997. "Aggression Among Female Lapwings, Vanellus vanellus. Animal Behaviour. 54 (3): 797-802.

Article in a popular magazine

(CMS 15.47)


Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. 1998. "How to Succeed at Damage Control." Fortune, March 30, 173-176.

Article in a newspaper

(CMS 15.47)

It is preferable to include newspaper references in running text (CMS 15.47).

Example: In his 8 May 1998 New York Times article "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," Steven Erlanger states...

If the newspaper citation needs to be included in the reference list, follow this model:

Erlanger, Steven. 1998. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times, May 8, sec. A.

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. In a printed work, if the URL needs to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash; before a single slash, a tilde, a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline, a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. (CMS 14.2)

Article from a full-text database

(CMS 14.271)


Zellner, Wendy. 2003. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 16. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/academic/
s_guidednews.html.

Article from an e-journal collection

(CMS 14.271)

Miguel, Edward. 2004. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56 (3): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 15.9 for more information and examples.

Article from a free web e-journal

(CMS 14.245)

Shrum, Robert. 1996. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 15.9 for more information and example.

Media

(Chicago Manual of Style 14.274-14.280) See also "Citing Audiovisual Materials in Author-Date Format", CMS 15.53)

Music Score

(CMS 14.269)

Johnson, Charles L. 1997. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Sound Recording

(CMS 14.276)

"Chicago recommends a more comprehensive approach to dating audiovisual materials than in previous editions of the manual"; for examples, see CMS 15.53.

Video Recording

(CMS 14.279)

"Chicago recommends a more comprehensive approach to dating audiovisual materials than in previous editions of the manual"; see CMS 15.53 for explanation and 14.279 and 14.280 for examples.

Television

No example provided in Chicago Manual of Style.

Web/Online

(Chicago Manual of Style, e-books: 14.166, e-journals: 14.184-14.185, online magazines: 14.200, online newspapers: 14.203, e-mail: 14.222-14.223 , web pages: 14.245, online multimedia: 14.280, and articles from full-text databases:14.271)

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. In a printed work, if the URL needs to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash; before a single slash, a tilde, a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline, a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. (CMS 14.2)

Web page

(CMS 14.245)

Yetman, Norman R. 2001. "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives." Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html.

Article from a free web e-journal

(CMS 14.200)

Shrum, Robert. 1996. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 15.9 for more information and example.

Article from a full-text database

(CMS 14.271)

Zellner, Wendy. 2003. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 16. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/academic/
s_guidednews.html.

Article from an e-journal collection

(CMS 14.184-14.185)

Miguel, Edward. 2004. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56 (3): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 15.9 for more information and examples.

Government Information

(Chicago Manual of Style, 15.54-15.55 for citing legal and public documents in author-date style. For general information on citing legal and public documents see 14.282-14.304)

Congressional Hearings

(CMS 14.296)

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. 1997. The threat from international organized crime and global terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations. 105th Cong., 1st sess., October 1.

Executive Department Documents

(CMS 14.303)

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice. 2001. The Threat of Russian Organized Crime, by James O. Finckenauer and Yuri A. Voronin. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS15051.

Unpublished

(Chicago Manual of Style, 15.48-15.51)

Interview

(CMS 15.48)

"Reference list entries are unneeded, though each person cited must be fully identified elsewhere in the text." (CMS 15.48)