Chicago Manual of Style book

Chicago Manual of Style

Documentary Note or Humanities Style

The Chicago Documentary Note, or Humanities Style is favored by many in the humanities and the arts. It is recommended for history research papers.

For other social sciences and sciences disciplines, use the Chicago Author-Date System.

This guide provides examples of the most commonly cited types of sources used by Williams College students. For additional examples and explanations, see Chicago Manual of Style or the print manual at Sawyer or Schow Reference Z253 .U69 2010.

About Notes | How to Format Notes and the Bibliography

About Notes

(For more detailed information see CMS, sec. 14.14)

The Documentary Note or Humanities Style uses bibliographic notes rather than text citations. It consists of two parts: a number in the text and a note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Notes are numbered sequentially, beginning with 1., throughout each article, chapter, or paper. The numbers in the text must be in superscript and should follow sentences, clauses, quotations, punctuation marks and closing parentheses. The note should have a normal, full sized number.

Subsequent references to sources already fully cited should be shortened whenever possible.

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited (London and New York: Verso, 1997), 17.

2. Gilbert Geis and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution (London: Routledge, 1997), 17.

3. Nairn, Faces of Nationalism, 176.

Ibid is used in place of the author's name, the title, and as much of the information as is identical to the immediately preceding note. It cannot be used if the preceding note cites more than one work.

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited (London and New York: Verso, 1997), 17.

2. Ibid., 39 - 43.

For an unknown author start the note and bibliographic entry with the title of the work.

3. "The Titanic Sails To-Day," New York Times, April 10, 1912.

For direct quotations from sources without page numbers use subheading, chapter, paragraph number, or other organizational division of the work.

8. David Pilgrim, "The Mammy Caricature," Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/mammies/, under "Commercial Mammies."

Citations taken from secondary sources should be avoided as researchers are expected to examine the works they cite. If the original work is not available, the original and secondary source must be cited.

9. Theodore Sedgwick, Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States (New York: D. Fanshaw, 1844), 31, quoted in Lyon Rathbun, "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny," Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 479.

Notes and Bibliography Examples

Books | Articles | Media | Web/Online | Government Information | Unpublished

Books

(Chicago Manual of Style, sec. 14.68-14.169)

Single author

(CMS 14.75)

note:

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited (London: Verso, 1997), 17.

bibliography:

Nairn, Tom. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso, 1997.

Multiple authors

(CMS 14.76)

note:

2. Gilbert Geis and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution (London: Routledge, 1997), 17.

bibliography:

Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge, 1997.

Edited Book

(CMS 14.87)

note:

3. Basil Dmytryshym, ed., Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917 (New York: Academic International Press, 1999), 35-41.

bibliography:

Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917. New York: Academic International Press, 1999.

Group or corporate author

(CMS 14.92)

note:

4. Global Environment Coordination, Facing the Global Environment Challenge (Washington, DC: Global Environment Coordination Division, Environment Dept., The World Bank, 1994), 433.

bibliography:

Global Environment Coordination. Facing the Global Environment Challenge. Washington, DC: Global Environment Coordination Division, Environment Dept., The World Bank, 1994.

Chapter or essay in book

(CMS 14.112)

note:

5. Craig H. Roell, "The Piano in the American Home," in The Arts and the American Home, 1980-1930, ed. Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 194.

bibliography:

Roell, Craig H. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890 - 1930, edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.

Article from a reference book

(CMS 14.247 and 14.248)

note:

6. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Washington, George."

For online reference sources, include URL and date of access. (CMS 14.248)

bibliography:

Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually not listed in the bibliography. For other reference works, cite as a book. (for more information, see CMS 14.248, 14.112)

Articles

(Chicago Manual of Style, sec. 14.170-14.217)

Article in a journal

(CMS 14.180)

note:

1. Ilya Bodonski, "Caring among the Forgotten," Journal of Social Activism 14, no.3 (1989): 117.

bibliography:

Bodonski, Ilya. "Caring among the Forgotten." Journal of Social Activism 14, no.3 (1989): 112-34.

Article in a journal (multiple authors)

(CMS 14.76)

note:

2. Arthur Carter and Margaret Speigel, "Childhood in Alsace," Journal of Modern History 74, no.4 (2002): 741.

bibliography:

Carter, Arthur and Margaret Speigel. "Childhood in Alsace." Journal of Modern History 74, no.4 (2002): 738-79.

Article in a popular magazine

(CMS 14.199)

note:

3. Scott Spencer, "Childhood's End," Harper's, May 1979, 16.

bibliography:

Spencer, Scott. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May 1979, 16-19.

Article in a newspaper

(CMS 14.203)

note:

4. Steven Erlanger, "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," New York Times, sec. A, May 8, 1998.
"Because a newspaper's issue of any given day may include several editions, and items may be moved or eliminated in various editions, page numbers are best omitted." (CMS 14.203)

bibliography:

Newspapers are usually cited in notes, not bibliographies. (CMS 14.206) If a bibliographic entry is included, it would be formatted as follows:

Erlanger, Steve. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," New York Times, May 8, 1998, sec. A.

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. In a printed work, if the URL needs to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash; before a single slash, a tilde, a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline, a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. (CMS 14.2)

Article from a full-text
library database

(CMS 14.271)

note:

5. Wendy Zellner, "An Insider's Tale Of Enron's Toxic Culture," Business Week, March 31, 2003, 16, LexisNexis Academic.

bibliography:

Zellner, Wendy. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 2003, 16. LexisNexis Academic.

Article from an e-journal collection

(CMS 14.185)

note:

6. Miguel Edward, "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania," World Politics 56, no.3 (2004): 330, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

bibliography:

Miguel, Edward. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56, no. 3 (2004): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec.14.184 for more information and example.

Article from a free web e-journal

(CMS 14.200)

note:

7. Robert Shrum, "Taxing Clinton's Character," Slate, June 25, 1996, http://slate.msn.com/id/1573/.

bibliography:

Shrum, Robert. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25, 1996. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style 14.184 for more information and example.

Media

(Chicago Manual of Style, sec. 14.274-14.280)

Music Score

(CMS 14.269)

note:

1. Charles L. Johnson, "Crazy Bone Rag," in Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, 41-45 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997).

bibliography:

Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997.

"Published musical scores are treated in much the same way as books." (CMS 14.269)

Sound Recording

(CMS 14.276)

note:

2. Virginia Eskin, Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime, Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD, 1992, compact disc.

bibliography:

Eskin, Virginia. Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime. Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD, 1992, compact disc.

Note: List sound recordings under the composer, writer, or other person responsible for the content. The performer may be added after the title. The recording company and the number of the recording are usually enough to identify the recording. (CMS 14.276)

Video Recording

(CMS 14.279)

note:

3. Thelma & Louise, directed by Ridley Scott (1991; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004), DVD.

bibliography:

Thelma & Louise. Directed by Ridley Scott. 1991. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

"Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number." (CMS 14.279)

Online Video

(CMS 14.280)

note:

4. U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration, Duck and Cover (Archer Productions, 1951), from Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives, MPEG video, 9:15, http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.
5. "Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960," YouTube video, 58:34, from televised debate September 26, 1960, posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

bibliography:

U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration. Duck and Cover (Archer Productions, 1951). From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.

"Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube video, 58:34. From televised debate September 26, 1960. Posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

Television

No example provided in Chicago Manual of Style.

Chicago Manual Q & A provides this example for bibliographies:

Friends. Episode no. 153, first broadcast 16 November 2000 by NBC. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri.

Web/Online

(Chicago Manual of Style, e-books: sec. 14.166, e-journals: 14.184, online magazines: 14.200, online newspapers:14.203, e-mail: 14.222 and websites and blogs: 14.243, and articles from full-text library databases: 14.271)

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. In a printed work, if the URL needs to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash; before a single slash, a tilde, a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline, a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. (CMS 14.2)

Web page

(CMS 14.245)

note:

1. Norman R. Yetman, "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives," Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938, last modified March 23, 2001, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snintro00.html.

bibliography:

Yetman, Norman R. "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives." Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938. Last modified March 23, 2001. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snintro00.html.

Also include a publication date or date of revision or modification (see 14.8); if no such date can be determined, include an access date (see 14.7).

Online Video

(CMS 14.280)

note:

4. U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration, Duck and Cover (Archer Productions, 1951), from Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives, MPEG video, 9:15, http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.
5. "Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960," YouTube video, 58:34, from televised debate September 26, 1960, posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

bibliography:

U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration. Duck and Cover (Archer Productions, 1951). From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.

"Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube video, 58:34. From televised debate September 26, 1960. Posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

Article from a free web e-journal

(CMS 14.200)

note:

7. Robert Shrum, "Taxing Clinton's Character," Slate, June 25, 1996, http://slate.msn.com/id/1573/.

bibliography:

Shrum, Robert. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25, 1996. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style 14.184 for more information and example.

Article from a full-text
library database

(CMS 14.271)

note:

5. Wendy Zellner, "An Insider's Tale Of Enron's Toxic Culture," Business Week, March 31, 2003, 16, LexisNexis Academic.

bibliography:

Zellner, Wendy. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 2003, 16. LexisNexis Academic.

Article from an e-journal collection

(CMS 14.185)

note:

6. Miguel Edward, "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania," World Politics 56, no.3 (2004): 330, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

bibliography:

Miguel, Edward. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56, no. 3 (2004): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec.14.184 for more information and example.

Government Information

(see also Chicago Manual of Style 14.282-14.304)

Congressional Hearings

(CMS 14.296)

note:

1. House Committee on International Relations, The Threat from International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, 105th Cong., 1st sess., October 1, 1997, 6-8.

bibliography:

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. The Threat from International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations. 105th Cong., 1st sess., October 1, 1997.

Executive Department Documents

(CMS 14.303)

note:

2. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, The Threat of Russian Organized Crime, by James O. Finckenauer and Yuri A. Voronin (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001), http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS15051.

bibliography:

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice. The Threat of Russian Organized Crime, by James O. Finckenauer and Yuri A. Voronin. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS15051.


Unpublished

(see also Chicago Manual of Style, 14.224-14.246)

Interview

(CMS 14.219)

note:

9. Frederick Rudolph, interview by author, Williamstown, MA, May 15, 2001.

bibliography:

Rudolph, Frederick. Interview by author. Williamstown, MA, May, 15 2001.

"Unpublished interviews are best cited ... in notes, though occasionally appear in bibliographies." (CMS 14.219)