Unpublished Sources

Guidelines for Williams students. Use print style manuals for more detailed information.

Williams College Archives

See the Williams Archives and Special Collections Citation Guide for guidance on citing all formats available in the College Archives.



In APA Style, personal communications are not considered verifiable or recoverable; they should be cited in the text only and not included in the reference list. (Publication Manual, chapter 6.20)

in text example: (H.C. Payne, personal communication, May 22, 1998)

Chicago (Note)


9. Frederick Rudolph, interview by author, Williamstown, MA, May 15, 2001.


Rudolph, Frederick. Interview by author. Williamstown, MA, May, 15 2001.

"Unpublished interviews are best cited ... in notes, though occasionally appear in bibliographies." (CMS 14.219)


in text:
(Rudolph 2001)

reference list:

"Reference list entries are unneeded, though each person cited must be fully identified elsewhere in the text." (CMS 15.48)


parenthetical reference:
It is usually preferable to include in the actual text the name of the person in the corresponding entry in the works cited list rather than using a parenthetical reference. Example: Harry Payne pointed out...


Payne, Harry C. Personal interview. [or "Telephone interview" or "E-Mail interview" as the case may be.] 22 May 1998.

Note: See section 5.7.7 of the MLA Handbook for interviews in print or media. See 5.6.2b for interviews on the Web.

Manuscript/Unpublished Document


See Publication Manual 4.16F.


See CMS 14.224-14.231.


See CMS . 15.48-15.51.


See MLA Handbook 5.8.12-13.