Media

Guidelines for Williams students. Use print style manuals for more detailed information.

Music Score

APA

No example given in APA Publication Manual for Music Score

Chicago
(Note)

note:

1. Charles L. Johnson, "Crazy Bone Rag," in Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, 41-45 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997).

bibliography:

Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997.

"Published musical scores are treated in much the same way as books." (CMS 14.269)

Chicago
(Author-Date)

in text:
(Johnson 1997)

reference list:

Johnson, Charles L. 1997. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

MLA

parenthetical reference
(Schoenberg)

bibliography:

Schoenberg, Arnold. A Survivor from Warsaw; For Narrator, Men's Chorus, and Orchestra. Op. 46. Long Island City: Bomart Music Publications, 1949. Print.

Note: Refer to MLA Handbook section 5.6.2 for scores online and 5.7.1 for television and radio broadcasts of music.

Sound Recording

APA

in text:
(Desmond, 1959, track 3)

reference list:

Desmond, P. (1959). Take five [recorded by Dave Brubeck Quartet]. On Time out [CD] New York, N.Y.: Columbia. (1987)

Use the original copyright date after the author/composer's name. If the date of the recording is different from the copyright date, place it after the name of the recording label, as above. (Publication Manual, 7.07)

Chicago
(Note)

note:

2. Virginia Eskin, Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime, Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD, 1992, compact disc.

bibliography:

Eskin, Virginia. Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime. Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD, 1992, compact disc.

Note: List sound recordings under the composer, writer, or other person responsible for the content. The performer may be added after the title. The recording company and the number of the recording are usually enough to identify the recording. (CMS 14.276)

Chicago
(Author-Date)

"Chicago recommends a more comprehensive approach to dating audiovisual materials than in previous editions of the manual"; for examples, see CMS 15.53.

MLA

parenthetical reference:
(Bernstein)

bibliography:

Bernstein, Leonard. Candide: Opera House Version, 1982. Orch. New York City Opera Chorus and Orchestra. Perf. Erie Mills, Joyce Castle, Maris Clement, John Lankston, Jack Harrold, David Eisler, James Billings, Scott Reeve. Cond. John Mauceri. New York: New World Records, 1986. CD.

Note: If citing a medium other than compact disc, indicate that medium after the date; e.g., audiocassette, LP, etc.

Video Recording

APA

in text:
(LaVoo & Brown, 2003)

reference list:

LaVoo, G., & Brown, E. T. (Producers), & Cardozo, P. (Director). (2003). Real womem have curves [DVD]. United States: HBO Video.

Chicago
(Note)

note:

3. Thelma & Louise, directed by Ridley Scott (1991; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004), DVD.

bibliography:

Thelma & Louise. Directed by Ridley Scott. 1991. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

"Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number." (CMS 14.279)

Chicago
(Author-Date)

"Chicago recommends a more comprehensive approach to dating audiovisual materials than in previous editions of the manual"; see CMS 15.53 for explanation and 14.279 and 14.280 for examples.

MLA

parenthetical reference:
("Like Water for Chocolate")

bibliography:

Like Water for Chocolate [Como agua para chocolate]. Screenplay by Laura Esquivel. Dir. Alfonso Arau. Perf. Lumi Cavazos, Marco Leonardi, Regina Torne. 1992. Burbank, Calif.: Miramax Home Entertainment, 2000. DVD.

Consult section 5.7.3 of the MLA Handbook for further information about citing films.

Television or Radio Program

APA

in text:
(Writer, year)

reference list:

Daniels, G. (Writer) & Kwapis, K. (Director). (2006). Gay witch hunt [Television series episode]. In G. Daniels (Executive producer), The office. Los Angeles, CA: National Broadcasting Company.

Chicago
(Note)

No example provided in Chicago Manual of Style.

Chicago Manual Q & A provides this example for bibliographies:

Friends. Episode no. 153, first broadcast 16 November 2000 by NBC. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri.

Chicago
(Author-Date)

No example provided in Chicago Manual of Style.

MLA

parenthetical reference:
("Frederick Douglass")

bibliography:

"Frederick Douglass." Civil War Journal. Narr. Danny Glover. Dir. Craig Haffner. Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 April 1993. Television.